Archaeological excavations – the meaning of the word
The archaeological excavations carried out for the purposes of historical research excavation of archaeological sites . mainly the ancient graves or the remains of ancient settlements.
In the USSR the organization of A. G. perform special archaeological institutions (research institutes, archaeological departments of universities, museums, etc.). A. G. should only be performed by specialists-archaeologists on the basis of an “Open” document to the right of excavation issued by the Academy of Sciences(Academy of Sciences) and the USSR Academy of Sciences(Academy of Sciences) Soviet republics. Archaeological science has developed a set of scientific techniques In A. G. A. G. settlement excavations produced a large enough area (to accommodate the facilities, meet), by layer (within layers — layers of a certain thickness), square (for ease of fixing) all the way down to the bottom of the cultural layer. Mandatory clear documentation of the excavation (written, graphic, Photographic). When A. G. studied cultural layer (and in burials — burial mound and the fill of the burial pit), structures, finds and bones of men and animals, remains of plants, grain and the like.
Study of earth sediments and mounds is an archaeological strathroy. Stratigraphic observations allow us to answer the question about the order and relationship of layers and structures, their relative Dating, time and size of the barriers that occur,or of robberies of graves. When A. G. barrows mound is excavated for the demolition; A. G. graves without burial mounds excavations are often constructed areas, as with A. G. settlements. When A. G. is taking the necessary measures for the preservation of found objects and structures remain unsolved. In some cases, samples shall be taken for tests: paleobotanical, dendrochronological, radiocarbon, paleomagnetic, chemical, etc. (see Archeological Dating ). The composition of the archaeological expedition are often included grantsnet, geologists, zoologists, physicists and the like A. G. produced by different tools (shovel, pickaxe, knives, lancets, brushes, etc.). Sometimes possible A. G. burial mounds semerenki machines. To remove progenote and freed from the findings of the land used conveyors, lifts, bulldozers. Full disclosure of the investigated settlement provides for restoration of his past life, and the study of burials allows to solve questions of anthropological composition, Ethnology, economy, ideology, and social structure. Open allow archaeologists to reconstruct historical picture of the lives of many peoples in primitive communal, slave and feudal society. Cm. also Archeology.