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Varakhsha In Bukhara Monuments

Varakhsha is located at a distance of 40 kilometers to the West from Bukhara (an area of 100 ha.; cultural layers – about 10 meters; the period of blossom – 7 – 8 century of our era; the time of the destruction of the 11th century).

Varakhsha is part of the ancient settlement on the territory of which was the residence of Bukhara-khudats . who reigned in Bukhara until the Arab conquest. Among many other causes of decline, and then collapse Varakhsha often called the lack of water in the irrigation systems field.

The historical significance of Varakhsha

Being an important political and religious object, well-fortified Varakhsha was an important military Outpost on the Western border of the oasis. In addition, the settlement Varakhsha was an important trading center . located on the road between Bukhara and Khoresm . facilitating contacts between nomads and settled population. The settlement was also the most important centre of crafts . This fact is confirmed by the fact that during the excavations were found the remains of the craftsmen quarters in the vicinity of Varakhsha. In addition, there was developed and agriculture . The settlement Varakhsha was the center of a large agricultural area . “irrigated by the twelve canals”.

Varakhsha played an important role in exciting local history for the period of the Arab conquest . At this time, the ancient ruling dynasty moved its residence to Varakhsha, thus making it the place where the unfolding of many tragic events.

Excavation of ancient settlement Varakhsha

Large-scale archeological excavations of the ancient cultures of the region, began in the second half of the 30 years of the twentieth century. The Soviet archaeologist Shishkin, Vasily was principal investigator of Varakhsha in 1937. Once at the site, where excavations were conducted Shishkin noticed the outline of room surface elevation to the East of the citadel. Discovery looked promising, and this site became the first archaeological site.

As it turned out, in one of the rooms has preserved fragments of ornament shapes and decorative finishes in the early style (which was then called the Sassanid ). This finding became a true archaeological sensation. Thus, Varakhsha was the first monumental building of Soghd . subjected to archaeological excavations.

The Palace Of Varakhsha

The Palace is the only architectural structure archaeologically known Sogdian, whose history is recorded in written sources. And indeed, in the Tarikhi Bukhara . written by Muhammad Ibn al – Narshakhi in 332 Ah (943-4 CE), there is a special Chapter devoted to this building. According to Narshakhi, the Palace was built “over a thousand years ago.” “This Palace was destroyed and abandoned for many years until Junak Hadat not restored it. Later he was again in ruins, while Bukhara-Khudat, Buniat Toghora not restored it in Islamic times. Here he ruled until then, until he was killed in this Palace”. [Narshaki – Frye 1954, pp. 17-18]

The original building of the Palace . assumed to have been built during the rule of Hanaka (689-709 ad). The first reconstruction was made during the reign of Tochoji . Frescoes on a blue background (the Eastern Hall and an early layer of paintings in the Red Hall) most likely belong to the period of his “apostasy” around 719 year. New mural of the red Hall belong to the later period of the Board of Tochoji, which ended in 738 ad, the Fourth phase of the history is associated with the ascension to the throne of his son Khoja Kutaiba (738-753 ad). Finally, Buniat Toshogu (753-782) initiated a major reconstruction of the Palace. At the time it was first applied plaster decoration . Bonet Toshogu was killed for supporting the anti-Arab uprising of Mukanna (70 – 80 years 8 century).

The content and genre of the murals of Varakhsha, as well as their fate reflect the political instability of that time and the precarious situation in which the rulers of Bukhara. Bukhar-khudats were forced to strike a balance between their own claims to rule of the Bukhara oasis and a huge force of Arabs. This provision is required to cope with a difficult task, to follow the old national and religious traditions – on the one hand, and, at the same time, to appear before the Arabs in the role of converts devout followers of Islam.

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