The ancient city of Phanagoria
Phanagoria was a major Greek colony, which was located on the Taman Peninsula, on the shore of Kerch Strait. Now the ruins of the former Phanagoria is located near the village of hay in the Krasnodar region.
The history of the Phanagoria has almost 27 centuries. Residents of the city of TEOS fleeing from the enemy armies of the Persian king Cyrus captured the city, decided to find another place to live. One part of settlers led by Panagora went to the Taman Peninsula, where after a time, about 542 BC, they founded the city state of Phanagoria.
In ancient Phanagoria looked like a typical ancient Greek city, which was built according to the classical canons of town planning. He was surrounded by strong fortified walls, cobbled streets and squares housed bronze and marble statues, there were a number of wells lined with stone. In the Central part of the city were temples, a theatre, public buildings and rich private houses. On the outskirts of Phanagoria had even a quarter of the potters, which was called Ceramics.
In the IV century BC Phanagoria has been included in the Bosporus. Since that time, Phanagoria is becoming a thriving commercial center. The economic basis of Phanagoria was agriculture, viticulture and winemaking, as well as a bigger role for trade with the population of the Kuban area, with the cities of the black sea and Sredizemnomorja.Through the town crossed a variety of goods: clothes, jewelry, wine. Traders from Greece were in demand fish, bread, meat, fur and many other goods that were brought to Fanagoria from nearby settlements.
Well it was developed, and winemaking, as evidenced by archaeological finds of grape seeds, vessels that were intended for retail trade in wine, image of the vine on the coins minted in Phanagoria own mint. In some historical sources say that in Phanagoria in addition to local varieties that were grown and other types of grapes, seeds and berries which were larger. Besides, along with public buildings in the city were built winery. One of them, for example, consisted of five sites for squeezing grape juice and three tanks, which were connected by a complex system of surface and underground drains.
Craft in Phanagoria were on the proper level. In bronze casting workshop to make statues the height of a human. Famous pottery is and various architectural details, terracotta statuettes, and various vessels.
But the prosperity of Phanagoria did not last long. At the end of IV century BC beating from the East of the Azov sea at the Fanagoria invaded the tribes of the Huns, whose brutality knew no bounds. As a result Phanagoria was completely destroyed, those who could not flee were killed or enslaved. With the fall of Phanagoria ceased to exist and the Kingdom of Bosporus. Gradually, the city was restored, as evidenced by the remains of structures V — IX centuries found during the excavation. However, over time much of the city as a result of the advance of the sea was flooded. City blocks with co-located residential buildings and public facilities went under water. And now only ruins and various archaeological findings are reminiscent of the former greatness of the ancient city Phanagoria based on the Taman Peninsula and once considered an important center, located at the crossroads of international routes.