Varakhsha is located at a distance of 40 kilometers to the West from Bukhara (an area of 100 ha.; cultural layers – about 10 meters; the period of blossom – 7 – 8 century of our era; the time of the destruction of the 11th century).
Varakhsha is part of the ancient settlement on the territory of which was the residence of Bukhara-khudats . who reigned in Bukhara until the Arab conquest. Among many other causes of decline, and then collapse Varakhsha often called the lack of water in the irrigation systems field.
The historical significance of Varakhsha
Being an important political and religious object, well-fortified Varakhsha was an important military Outpost on the Western border of the oasis. In addition, the settlement Varakhsha was an important trading center . located on the road between Bukhara and Khoresm . facilitating contacts between nomads and settled population. The settlement was also the most important centre of crafts . This fact is confirmed by the fact that during the excavations were found the remains of the craftsmen quarters in the vicinity of Varakhsha. In addition, there was developed and agriculture . The settlement Varakhsha was the center of a large agricultural area . “irrigated by the twelve canals”. Continue reading
Phanagoria was a major Greek colony, which was located on the Taman Peninsula, on the shore of Kerch Strait. Now the ruins of the former Phanagoria is located near the village of hay in the Krasnodar region.
The history of the Phanagoria has almost 27 centuries. Residents of the city of TEOS fleeing from the enemy armies of the Persian king Cyrus captured the city, decided to find another place to live. One part of settlers led by Panagora went to the Taman Peninsula, where after a time, about 542 BC, they founded the city state of Phanagoria.
In ancient Phanagoria looked like a typical ancient Greek city, which was built according to the classical canons of town planning. He was surrounded by strong fortified walls, cobbled streets and squares housed bronze and marble statues, there were a number of wells lined with stone. In the Central part of the city were temples, a theatre, public buildings and rich private houses. On the outskirts of Phanagoria had even a quarter of the potters, which was called Ceramics. Continue reading
The ancient city of Caral (Caral-Supe, Caral-Supe) is located 160 kilometers North of Lima. Numerous studies have established that the city had already existed 5,000 years ago. These data shook the scientific world – was that Caral is the oldest centre of civilization in the Americas. Now Caral is on the list of world heritage sites and protected by UNESCO.
The total area of the archaeological zone covers 626 hectares. Caral is located on a deserted and dry land overlooking a terrace in the lush valley of the Supe river. Because of the dry climate of the city is perfectly preserved. Caral is impressive in complexity and monumentality of its architecture. There are 18 urban centers, including 6 huge pyramids.
During archaeological excavations in Caral were found the oldest known samples of quipu (knot writing system used by the Andean civilizations to record and store information ). These pile demonstrate how well developed was the civilization that lived in this region 5,000 years ago. Continue reading